water treatment


The supply of pure and clean drinkable water in large scale quantities or volumes in Nigeria is a huge problem and any entrepreneur who call help provide solutions to this problem or need will definitely become a wealthy man. Presently, we have a large number of people who have ventured into the pure water supply business and who sell in bottled and sachet water or water dispensers.

Water treatment is, collectively, the industrial-scale processes that make water more acceptable for an end-use, which may be drinking, industry, or medicine. Water treatment should remove existing water contaminants or so reduce their concentration that their water becomes fit for its desired end-use, which may be safely returning used water to the environment.

Water purification is the removal of contaminants from untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for the most critical of its intended uses, usually for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspended solidsbacteriaalgaevirusesfungi, minerals such as ironmanganese and sulfur, and other chemical pollutants such as fertilizers.

Measures taken to ensure water quality not only relate to the treatment of the water, but to its conveyance and distribution after treatment as well. It is therefore common practice to have residual disinfectants in the treated water in order to kill any bacteriological contamination during distribution.

World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are generally followed throughout the world for drinking water quality requirements. In addition to the WHO guidelines, each country or territory or water supply body can have their own guidelines in order for consumers to have access to safe drinking water.

The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation.

Biological processes are employed in the treatment of wastewater and these processes may include, for example, aerated lagoonsactivated sludge or slow sand filters.


A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:

Pre-chlorination – for algae control and arresting any biological growth

Aeration – along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese

Coagulation – for flocculation

Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolyte’s – to improve coagulation and for thicker flow formation

Sedimentation – for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the flow

Filtration – removing particles from water

Desalination – Process of removing salt from the water

Disinfection – for killing bacteria.

There is no unique solution (selection of processes) for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardize the solution in the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes.

Technologies for potable water treatment are well developed, and generalized designs are available that are used by many water utilities (public or private). In addition, a number of private companies provide patented technological solutions. Automation of water and waste-water treatment is common in the developed world. Capital costs, operating costs available quality monitoring technologies, locally available skills typically dictate the level of automation adopted.


Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from wastewater or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. To be effective, sewage must be conveyed to a treatment plant by appropriate pipes and infrastructure and the process itself must be subject to regulation and controls. Some wastewaters require different and sometimes specialized treatment methods. At the simplest level, treatment of sewage and most wastewaters is carried out through separation of solids from liquids, usually by sedimentation. By progressively converting dissolved material into solids, usually a biological floc, which is then settled out, an effluent stream of increasing purity, is produced.


Two of the main processes of industrial water treatment are boiler water treatment and cooling water treatment. A lack of proper water treatment can lead to the reaction of solids and bacteria within pipe work and boiler housing. Steam boilers can suffer from scale or corrosion when left untreated leading to weak and dangerous machinery, scale deposits can mean additional fuel is required to heat the same level of water because of the drop in efficiency. Poor quality dirty water can become a breeding ground for bacteria such as Legionella causing a risk to public health.

With the proper treatment, a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be reusable. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water consumption, lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled wastewater.

Corrosion in low pressure boilers can be caused by dissolved oxygen, acidity and excessive alkalinity. Water treatment therefore should remove the dissolved oxygen and maintain the boiler water with the appropriate pH and alkalinity levels. Without effective water treatment, a cooling water system can suffer from scale formation, corrosion and fouling and may become a breeding ground for harmful bacteria such as those that cause Legionnaires’ Disease. This reduces efficiency, shortens plant life and makes operations unreliable and unsafe.


DisinfectantsOzone, as a very strong oxidant, is one of the main disinfectants when purifying water. As ozone breaks down in the water, a complex chain reaction mechanism occurs under the effect of the various solutes in the water or released during purification treatment. Its ability to inactivate living cells can be extended to the point of provoking their lysis.

Ultraviolet(UV) radiation is produced using ultraviolet lamps with quartz covers. UV produces a minimum of by-products when treating the water.

Other: An advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a system to purify water by chemical oxidation to deactivate residual organic pollutants. AOPs are capable of generating a more powerful and less selective secondary oxidant in the reaction medium by activating an available primary oxidant. AOP has been only gradually used in the water treatment industry. One of the many AOP systems, the combined O3/H2O2, is the most widely used one especially for the purpose of destroying pesticides in order to produce water for human consumption.


If you want to start this business you can follow the following steps to do so;

Pure drinking water is a popular beverage, particularly for those who are health conscious or who have limited access to non-treated drinking water through their community water system. In addition to the health aspects of pure drinking water is the convenience it offers, as it is typically distributed in easily carried bottles or jugs. The demand for pure drinking water has created new opportunities for small-business owners who want to get into water sales and promotion.

Step 1

Create a comprehensive business plan to help you identify all necessary start-up and operational costs for your pure drinking water business. You can do this yourself by using business plan writing software, downloading free business planning templates or you can hire a professional to write the plan for you.

Step 2

Secure all necessary business licenses and use permits required by the city in which you are operating and open a business bank account.

Step 3

Secure necessary start-up funding. The amount of money you need to start a small business promoting and selling pure drinking water will depend on several factors, including the costs associated with your physical base of operations, the amount of inventory you will need to purchase and other basic start-up needs, such as office equipment, employee training, insurance and company vehicles. For best results, refer to your business plan in making these financial calculations.

Step 4Secure a physical location for your business and purchase all necessary equipment and inventory.

Step 5Hire and train employees.

Step 6Educate yourself about the current pure drinking water market and identify potential target markets that are currently underserved.

Step 7Create compelling promotional messages that tout the health benefits of pure drinking water and make strategic media buys that will help you promote and sell pure drinking water through newspaper and magazine advertising, outdoor billboards and television and radio commercials.

Step 8Participate in health fairs that allow you to promote and sell pure drinking water and partner with health organizations, grocery and retail outlets, schools and businesses to become a vendor of pure drinking water.




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